The wallet is an Ethanim user terminal that integrates the account system, authentication node, and application client trusted execution environment.

The outermost layer of the terminal is wrapped by the Trusted Execution Environment (Tee), and users need to pass the public and private key authentication based on elliptic curve encryption algorithm to enter the terminal (i.e., login). After login, the users can view the status of validators, account balance, and block data, etc.


Proof of interest(PoS) is a consensus method used by blockchain networks to reach distributed consensus. Staking is the process used by the PoS blockchain to protect the blockchain and generate new blocks. The process of selecting a validator to create a new block is called staking.

The probability of a validator being selected to generate/validate a block are proportional to the number of tokens. Therefore, anyone with a small amount of tokens can participate in staking and earn additional tokens proportional to their stake amount.

To become a validator on the node network, users must stake their EPUs, which are utility tokens for the Ethanim blockchain. Validators receive interest on their staked tokens, which are denominated in EPUs, as a reward for their active participation in maintaining the security of the network.

To become an Ethanim validator, a user must invest a certain number of Ethanim Token. Validators are assigned a randomly generated subset of validators to perform trusted validation of RSM.

Different from other blockchains, the validators of Ethanim can be run on the most common computing devices, such as laptops or even smartphones. Users' shares are used to incentivize active validator activity. For example, if a user goes offline (fails to validate), the user may lose a portion of their share. And if they deliberately collude, they may lose their entire investment. In addition, under the PoS system, users can delegate their interests to another user who can perform the duties of a validator on their behalf.

This form of stake provides a passive income stream for contributors and helps improve the security of the Ethanim network.


Ethanim uses PoT consensus mechanism based on PoS consensus mechanism. To become a validator, you need to stake a certain amount of Ethanim Token. The system will allocate additional Ethanim Tokens as stake rewards. The reward is divided into two kinds, namely.

  • Basic rewards, are the rewards that can be earned without block generation.

The following is the Ethanim stake award calculation formula.

S:stake amount

T:total stake amount

P_1:price at time of stake

P_{cur}:current price

O:annual output

F = \frac{S}{T}

A_{apy} = \frac{FOP_{cur}}{SP_1}

  • Rewards for block generation

  • At regular intervals, the system randomly selects a validator as the block proposer, and the block proposer and the prover have different reward models. The block proposer receives 1/8 of the base reward, called "B", while the prover receives the remaining ⅞ B. This reward is adjusted according to the time it takes for the block proposer to submit the proof.

  • To receive the full ⅞ B reward, provers must be submitted as soon as possible. Payouts are reduced for each slot passed without a prover, including proofs for blocks. If two slots are passed before proofs are included, the prize is reduced by 7/16 B; if three slots are passed, it is reduced by 7/32 B, and so on.

Using a set of assumptions around the cost of a network attack, we define the economic level of security that Ethanim must achieve. The implication of this security level is to make the cost of an attack higher than the potential benefit that can be gained from the attack. It also makes PoS consensus mechanisms to achieve the same level of security as PoW.

We identified two main types of economic attack vectors. Each type of attack vector has different variants and different levels of risk: Supermajority Attack and Finality Attack.

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