5. Overview

5.1 Core values of Ethanim

As mentioned before, the traditional blockchain platform cannot support the high efficient implementation of large-scale decentralized applications. The metaverse is inevitably composed of large-scale decentralized applications. In order to build the metaverse, the problem of decentralizing large applications needs to be solved first.
The brand-new technology architecture of Ethanim is designed for the decentralization of large applications. It can ensure large and complex applications run securely and with high performance while ensuring decentralization. It makes a breakthrough in the decentralized world, enabling the metaverse to be truly realized.
Ethanim will become an indispensable infrastructure and entrance of the metaverse.

5.2 Principles of Design

5.2.1 Security

Although the decentralization of metaverse applications is very important, ensuring the performance of decentralization can easily make security be a shortcoming. Once security cannot be guaranteed, the application and the whole ecology will become worthless. The core of Ethanim architecture is based on trusted computing technology, which ensures the application's trustworthiness on computing, communication, and data from the source, and enables it to be higher secure than the traditional blockchain architecture.

5.2.2 Scalability

The system can be scaled unlimitedly as needed, supporting any number of applications, any level of computational complexity, and any user scale while maintaining high performance and low cost.

5.2.3 Simplicity

There are two aspects: simplicity of development and simplicity of use.
The simplicity of development is that developers can quickly and efficiently develop large decentralized applications using their familiar development languages and methods without additional learning.
The simplicity of use is that end-users can use decentralized applications as proficiently as ordinary applications. The users even won't be aware of the underlying platform and they don't need additional complex operations.

5.2.4 Continued Decentralization

The system should encourage and facilitate the continued decentralization of the network to ensure the security and robustness of the applications and assets on the platform. And the technical solution and governance mechanism should be designed to allow flexibility and continuous iteration so that the applications on the platform will not be shut down and achieve eternal computing.

5.3 Working Principles of Ethanim

Ethanim is a metaverse blockchain infrastructure managed and run by a decentralized community. Its solution is completely different from traditional blockchains, featuring the ability to support fully decentralized development and deployment and efficient operation of large applications. It allows decentralized applications of any scale to have a comparable experience to centralized applications.
The traditional blockchain consensus approach can be treated as a "common ledger": multiple nodes work together to maintain a common ledger, where each node calculates and records the transactions in the network. The consensus mechanism decides whose record can be updated to the common ledger and synchronized by all other nodes according to different rules.
This requires that each node must execute all the transactions and calculations of the system to reach consensus then synchronize, which greatly reduces the computational efficiency. And for large applications such as games, which require complex, high-frequency, real-time calculations, this consensus is simply impossible to be used.
Therefore, Ethanim converts its technical implementation from consensus on every transaction to the Trias Layer -1 blockchain that is based on trusted computing technology. It creates a trusted execution environment for applications and a monitoring process - a Reliable State Machine(RSM), which puts the nodes running applications under the trusted constraints, standardizes and monitors the code integrity and running status of applications to ensure that the right application is running in the right place. And the validators are introduced to verify the trustworthy state of the RSM to ensure the decentralization and security of the system. This validation will be very simple and efficient without affecting the system performance. So there is no need for multi-node consensus on the calculation results, which can solve the problem of inefficient consensus on complex calculations from the source.
It is not enough to make the nodes trustworthy. The RSM continuously clones the snapshots of the application state and stores them in the eternal file system, and stores the index hash of the snapshot on the main chain. Any user is able to request the hash index on the main chain, download the stored state snapshot, and restore the program to the state at any moment. In this way, even if the application is shut down, it still can be "reborn", namely, the application will live eternally.
Ethanim achieves the "eternality" and "decentralization" of applications by making them "be trusted during runtime" and "be recovered by anyone when being shut down" without performance loss. This is a brand-new decentralization solution! With the new solution, Ethanim can support the decentralization of any application regardless of how computationally complex the application is. As long as the hardware can support the application, it can run and reach consensus instantly.
The above is just a brief introduction to the core principles of Ethanim. More about the differences from traditional blockchain systems can be learned in the technical introduction later.